Wednesday, 13 May 2020

Wouldhaves in London

The earliest mention of a Wouldhave family in London is at Wapping, Middlesex; this is the baptism of Robert Wouldhave in 1674 and his burial later that year.  His parents, Robert and Margaret Wouldhave already had a daughter Elizabeth who was born in about 1671 and a son Joseph who died in 1677. It is possible that Robert was living in North Shields before moving to Wapping. There is a baptism of Elizabeth in 1669 at Christchurch, Tynemouth which may correspond.

Robert and Margaret had six further children baptised in Wapping, of which only three survived childhood, John b 1675, Mary b 1679 and Margaret b 1684. Robert was described as a mariner in parish records; in a letter (which can be viewed at the British Library) from the East India Company dated 20th February 1683 Robert was commissioned as Captain of the Syam Merchant which set sail for the Bay of Bengal. 
East India Company Arms 1600 - 1709
By DiegoAma - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0

The letter warned of the danger of pirates in the region of the Cape Verde Islands and that on the journey back the ship should try to keep company with other ships for defence. The letter also stated “We desire you to keep up the worship of God on Board your ship and good order among your men and take care of their health”.  Captain Wouldhave was also warned not to trust anyone from other European nations since at that time they did not know how England would stand in terms of relations with other countries when the ship eventually returned to England. William Hedges Esq, agent and governor for the East India Company noted meeting the Syam Merchant in his diary while on his journey out to Bengal on February 26th 1684.

Robert died at sea in 1685 while on the voyage. He was succeeded in the captaincy by the mate Francis Burrel, who brought the ship safely back to London, presumably bearing the news of Robert’s death to his widow Margaret. Margaret was granted Administration on 13th April 1686. Margaret was left with a young family to care for.  Elizabeth, the eldest was 15 years, John 11 years, Mary 7 years and Margaret, the youngest, was 2 years old. There were sufficient funds for Margaret to continue to live in the area and take care of her children.

In 1687 Elizabeth married James Jenifer (b 1661 approx), with permission from her mother, Margaret. James was a mariner and son of James Jenifer snr who had been a naval captain who commanded the Queen’s yacht from 1671 until his death in 1677. Many naval captains were relatively poor; few could make a living from their pay alone and a financially successful naval career depended on prize-taking.  The Jenifers lived in a modest house in Deptford. For most naval sea captains, life was a constant struggle to fend off creditors and claim the monies due to them from the state. Information from Margaret Wouldhave’s will (1695) indicted that she had already provided financial support to the couple since it stated “in consideration of what I have already advanced and given unto my daughter Elizabeth Jenifer wife of James Jenifer Mariner

Margaret’s will showed her to be a wealthy widow. Her son John inherited the family house. Her two unmarried daughters, Mary and Margaret, were left the sum of seven hundred pounds to be shared among them equally when they came of age or married. Elizabeth was also living in her mother’s household or renting rooms from her since in Margaret’s will she was left “the bed whereon she now lodgeth and all the furniture to the same appertaining with the needlework looking glass now standing in the best chamber

After Margaret’s death, James and Elizabeth Jenifer lived in Whitechapel and they had a daughter called Sarah. James was also a mariner with the East India Company. He was Commander of the ship Katherine on its voyage to the East Indies when he died in 1706, at the age of about 47 years.  In his will he left everything to his wife Elizabeth who was also his sole Executor.

East India ship about 1690

 Mary (1679 – 1749) married John Denn in 1701. They had eight children Margaret b 1704, Mary b 1705, John b 1708, Elizabeth 1709, Wouldhave b 1710, Peter b 1711, Sarah b 1717 and Edward b1721. John Denn was a mariner and the family lived in Rotherhithe, Surrey. At some point later the family moved to Lewisham in Kent. Mary lost both her husband and one of her sons in 1747.  Wouldhave Denn died at sea and Captain John Denn was buried in Lewisham. 

Signature of Wouldhave Denn from his will 1747
Wouldhave left his estate to his parents during their lifetimes but his father died before probate was granted.  Mary was the beneficiary and executor of her husband’s will and obtained the probate of her son’s will also. Wouldhave Denn’s will only mentioned his brothers John and Edward in his will as well as his siters without mentioning how many had survived by this date.

Mary Denn died in 1749.  In her will she left houses in Wapping and Rotherhithe and as well as bonds in the East India Company. Her son John was the major beneficiary together with her daughters Mary, whose married name was Green, and Elizabeth, whose married name was Drayton.

Margaret Wouldhave, the daughter of Margaret and Robert, died in 1705.  She had not yet come of age so did not inherit from her mother’s will of 1605.  Margaret left small bequests to each of her sisters and some of her friends with “the residue to my niece and goddaughter Margaret Denn daughter of my sister Mary at marriage or 21

John Wouldhave may have also been a mariner.  A Letter of Marque, dated 1697, for the ship Richardson Galley, captained by Richard Ryder, lists John Wouldhave as Master. This ship, with forty crew, was described as having food for 6 months and carried twenty guns, twenty barrels of powder, sixteen rounds of great shot, 300 rounds of small shot and forty small arms. The ship was sailing to South Barbary, i.e. the coastal regions of North Africa. Letters of Marque were not to give permission to carry weapons on a ship since that could be done without needing any special permission.  However, a Letter of Marque allowed a ship to take a prize if the opportunity arose, without it being labelled piracy. Unfortunately we have no further information on the Richardson Galley and whether it was involved in any incidents of prize taking.

Monday, 27 April 2020

Freemen of Newcastle Part 5 The connection to families in Durham

We have always been puzzled as to how and why the Wouldhave families, who seemed to have been based largely in Newcastle and on the Tyne in the 16th and 17th centuries, came to live in Bishop Auckland and Barnard Castle in the 18th and 19th centuries.  The information we found while looking at the records of the Barber Surgeons of Newcastle helped explain some of the reasons.
Bishop Auckland
In the Poll Book for Newcastle for the 1777 election of Burgess the following Wouldhaves were included

Anthony Wouldhave (AN052) Barber Surgeon Durham (1733-1814)
Anthony Wouldhave jnr (AN092) Barber Surgeon Durham(1754 – after 1777)
Michael Wouldhave (MI091) Barber Surgeon Barnard Castle (1745 – 1812)
Parkinson Wouldhave (PA050) Barber Surgeon Bishop Auckland (1725 – 1826)
Parkinson Wouldhave jnr (PA101) Barber Surgeon Bishop Auckland (1756 – 1845)
Robert Wouldhave (RO091) Barber Surgeon Barnard Castle (1750 – 1835)
William Wouldhave (WI091) Barber Surgeon Bishop Auckland (1750 – 1836)
William Wouldhave (WI093) Barber Surgeon Cockerton (1747-1794)

From the information we have on these individuals, none of them were practising barber surgeons. Therefore they must have inherited their status as Freemen by patrimony from their grandfathers who were barber surgeons or even their great-grandfathers.
Barnard Castle
Information from the Barber Surgeons records held at Tyne and Wear Archives

Samuel Wouldhave (1659 – 1691) and Michael Wouldhave (1665 – 1697), sons of William Wouldhave, gentleman, served their time as apprentices and were admitted to the Company of Barber Surgeons, thereby becoming Freemen of Newcastle. Robert Lettany, who features in the apprenticeship of both brothers married Jane Wouldhave in 1673.  Jane may have been the sister of William, from the baptism information for Newcastle, and therefore aunt to the two brothers.

Samuel was apprenticed to Richard Thompson for seven years in 1677.  However during this time he was employed by Robert Lettany and therefore Samuel’s master was fined for allowing this to happen.  Richard Thompson refused to pay the fine and Samuel could not be admitted to the company until he did so.  In 1684 Samuel married Elizabeth Grainge in Bishopwearmouth and they had two children while living in Bishopwearmouth who sadly both died young: Thomas (1688 – 1689) and Jane (1691 – 1693).  Samuel paid for his admittance in 1685 and he died and was buried in Bishopwearmouth in 1691.

Michael was apprenticed to Robert Lettany in 1683 but with the consent of his parents and master he took himself off the register and became apprenticed to Richard Todd.  Michael lived in Chester le Street and had sons Anthony (1695 – 1767) and Parkinson (born 1692). Michael was buried in All Saints, Newcastle, in 1697.

Anthony (1695-1767) married Mary Green in Darlington in 1716. In 1741 and 1753 he was recorded as a Freeman of Newcastle (Barber).  His sons also became freemen. William (WI093) was christened in Darlington in 1719, Parkinson (PA050) in 1725 and Anthony (AN052) in 1733.  All three became freemen of Newcastle and appeared in the poll books.
Sons of two of these brothers also became freemen of Newcastle by patrimony.

William was a weaver and lived in Cockerton. His sons Michael (MI091), christened in 1745, Robert (RO091), christened in 1750, and Anthony (AN092), christened in 1754 all became Freemen.
Parkinson owned property in Newgate, Bishop Auckland and he lived to be over 100 years old.  This achievement was celebrated in local newspapers and in the book The History and Characteristics of Bishop Auckland. Parkinson had two sons who also became freemen, Parkinson jnr (PA101) and Willliam (WI091).
Present Day Newgate Street is normally a busy shopping area

Therefore the Wouldhaves moved for economic reasons in the late seventeenth century into Durham and kept their status and connections as Freemen of Newcastle.  Their families flourished and a large number of Wouldhaves in Durham are descended from the Barber Surgeons of Newcastle.

Sunday, 16 December 2018

Freemen of Newcastle Part 4 Another Barber Surgeon

Roger Wouldhave (RO020)1652-1681

Roger was baptised in December 1652.  His father was Lawrance Wouldhave (LA010), a coal-fitter, who had married Phillis Ruxabel (PH010) in October 1646 at All Saints Church in Newcastle.  Roger was the fifth of seven children.

A modern view of the Castle Keep, the last refuge
during the siege of Newcastle. 
St Nicholas Cathedral can be seen to the right of the Keep

Roger's parents married and raised their family in turbulent times; the Siege of Newcastle had ended in unconditional surrender of the Royalist Town to Scottish troops acting for the Parliamentarians in October 1644.  The town had suffered much damage particularly around the Quayside and from Westgate to the Bigg Market.  The townsfolk had endured nine weeks of rationing and lack of firewood. The Royalist casualties were not recorded but it is likely that most of the town’s garrison was killed either during the siege or the sacking that followed.  It is possible that Roger was named after a relative, Roger Wouldhave, who was involved in the defense of Newcastle and later served in the Scottish Army. 

Modern view of Tudor houses in Newcastle which filled
the Sandhill, Westgate and Quayside areas

In May 1646 King Charles I was held prisoner by the Scots in a stately mansion called Anderson Place, which was on the west side of Pilgrim Street and he was allowed the freedom to move around Newcastle in daily walks or riding, until an escape attempt, organised by the Queen, who was in France, was thwarted by the Scottish troops. After 9 months of negotiations, Charles was handed over to the parliamentary commissioners and the Scots left Newcastle. Charles I was executed in 1649 and the Commonwealth proclaimed which lasted until 1660 when Charles II acceded the throne.

Roger was three years old when his father died in 1657 and he is mentioned in Lawrence’s will (National Archives Prob11/276) as a beneficiary.

In September 1669 Roger was bound apprentice to Robert Rooksby to serve seven years apprenticeship as a Barber Surgeon.  By this time the monarchy had been restored with the accession of Charles II. Roger was admitted to the Company of Barber Surgeons in 1676. He was mentioned in the company minutes when he complained that another member of the company had taken a patient, Robert Bartram, out of his hands; he was later remunerated for this. Roger attended meetings until his death in October 1681, aged 29 years. His burial was recorded in St Nicholas register in Newcastle and it notes that he was buried in woollen.  The Burying in Woollen Acts 1666-1680 required the dead to be buried in a pure English wool shroud and not a foreign textile, unless destitute or a plague victim.   

Friday, 2 November 2018

Freemen of Newcastle Part 3 Barber Surgeons

The earliest records of Barber Surgeons in Newcastle start from 1442.  The oldest minute book is from 1616-1686, order books date from 1619 and apprentice enrolments from 1723 (From Tyne and Wear Archives).
The Arms of the Company of Barber Surgeons in a display
at Tyne and Wear Discovery Museum

Barber surgeons differed from Physicians in that they were trained by trade rather than academically.  They could perform minor surgical procedures such as bloodletting, cupping therapy or pulling teeth.  They could also cut hair, shave or trim facial hair.

A Display of instruments used by barber Surgeons including a
Bone Saw and Amputation Knives at the
Tyne and Wear Discovery Museum
Apprenticeships lasted seven years during which time marriage was forbidden. In 1671 apprentices paid forty shillings at the end of their seven year term in order to become free brothers.  Those who were sons of brothers had to pay thirty three shillings in order to become a free brother.
In the latter part of the eighteenth century the company declined partly due to the growth of hospitals and medical schools as well as the improvement and specialisation of medicine.

John Wouldhave (JO010) 1635-1704)

John was the son of Henry Wouldhave of Newcastle upon Tyne.  He was baptised in Newcastle St John’s in 1635. He was apprenticed to Robert Archbold in 1650 to serve for seven years.  Near the end of this time he and his master were held to account for his marriage to Ann before he had completed his apprenticeship.  In the Minute Book for a meeting on 16 February 1657 the consequences of this are given: John is fined 40 shillings and if Ann was found to be with child before his apprenticeship expired he would be fined 40s for every child.  In November that year John paid his 40s fine for his early marriage and also 40s to be admitted into the Company.

John and Ann’s first child was Margerie, born 2nd August 1661.  They had a second daughter, Bridget, born 1663 and a son, John, born in February 1668.  Ann died in May 1668 and John, no doubt needing someone to look after his very young family, remarried in August 1668.  His wife was Grace Rutter, a widow.
 John is listed as an attendee at many of the meetings in the minute books and he is also listed as attending the burials of other members of the Company.  His signature is in the minute books alongside that of other members of the Company on agreeing changes to their constitution.
John's signature 3rd from the bottom
He became employed directly by the Company of Barber Surgeons and Wax and Tallow Chandlers in 1690; he had a salary of £2 per year.  It isn’t clear what work this involved although it is listed that he provided food (1690), looked after the workmen (1692) and travelled on behalf of the Company (North Shields in 1692). In 1703 it appears that he was provided with a house to live in by the Company, possibly because of his age or physical condition.  He died the next year and was buried in St John’s in October 1704.  He was described as a Barber Surgeon of Manor Chair in All Saints Parish in the register.  The Company paid the church dues and also paid his salary to his wife (£2 and 6 shillings).  His wife Grace was paid various sums during the next few months and then received a ‘pension’ of 10 shillings each year until her death in May 1708.  The Company also paid for her coffin.  

Tuesday, 20 March 2018

Freemen of Newcastle Part 2 Skinners and Glovers

The Skinners were one of the oldest guilds of the town of Newcastle, dating from at least medieval times. Following the dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII, Blackfriars in Newcastle was bought by Newcastle Corporation in 1544 and leased to some of the town’s guilds.  The Skinners and Glovers were based in the buildings of Blackfriars for centuries.  The buildings of Blackfriars survive today forming a picturesque survival from medieval times with small shops and a restaurant.

There were Wouldhaves admitted to and working in the Guild of Skinners and Glovers from the beginning of the seventeenth century until the middle of the eighteenth century, all from one family line. They are all recorded in the registers of St Andrew’s Church, which dates from the late 1100s.
The baptismal font at St Andrew's
Church, Newcastle

Thomas is the first Wouldhave mentioned in the registers as a Skinner and Glover. He was possibly born in 1610, the son of Thomas Wouldhave, a yeoman, who died before his son’s birth.  From the books of the Skinners and Glovers, available to view at Tyne and Wear Archives, Thomas was apprenticed to Robert R Bates in 1619. Thomas married Elizabeth Hixson in 1628 and their son Robert was born in 1629. Thomas died in 1653 and in his will he asked to be buried in the Parish Church of St Andrews, on the North side. He left his house to his wife, Elizabeth and another “little house” adjoining it. After her death, the house was to pass onto his son, Robert.  The “little house” was to pass to his daughter Elizabeth after his wife’s death.
Inside St Andrew's Church,
the North Aisle is on the left
of this picture

Robert Wouldhave appears on the list of Newcastle Freemen in 1649 as a Skinner and Glover.  He also was the Parish Clerk of St Andrew’s from 1667.  He seems not to have been successful in the parish clerk role because in 1673 the Vicar complained about his conduct and asked for him to be excommunicated. Robert married Susan Stanger in 1652 and they had a number of children who did not survive infancy.  Their son John (JO039) born in 1671 was entered into the book of Skinners and Glovers in 1677 as a free brother’s son.

John married Ann Smyth in 1695 and their son William (WI039) was born in 1697. John lived in the Groat Market of Newcastle, where he is likely to have sold his wares; he died in 1704 and was buried in the North Aisle of St Andrew’s.  In his will he left all his “ready money, household goods, plate, stock in trade, shop goods and all other effects” to his wife Anne. 

William was apprenticed as a Tanner to Thomas Pattison and appears to have been very successful in this area.  His death notice in the Newcastle Courant in 1759 said
“He had acquired a handsome fortune in the business of a Tanner and Skinner with good character”
William's signature on the will of Susan Hylton

William did not marry.  His will included some small gifts:
·         John Barnes of Sunderland, Boatbuilder £100;
·         William and Francis Stainback , sons of Francis Stainback, late innkeeper of the city of Durham £50 each;
·         Servant Mary Smailes £20;
·         Ralph Smith, saddler’s apprentice in Sunderland, son of Ralph Smith of Sedgefield, Balcksmith, £20.
The residue went to his sole executrix Alice Thompson, wife of Thomas Thompson, Newcastle upon Tyne, Joiner.  It’s not yet clear what relationship there was between William and Alice.
William was also involved in the wool trade.  In some communication with Isaac Wilson in Kendal about an alleged debt for wool received, it is clear that William is dealing in wool of various qualities (Letter available for viewing at Kendal Archives).  Thomas Thompson pursued the debt after William’s death.

Wednesday, 21 February 2018

Wouldhave as a middle name Part 1

The forename of a relative is sometimes used to honour a particular familial connection or heritage. This can be helpful in tracing the ancestry of a person, although it can take some research to find the original connection.  In 1789, the 18th-century inventor William Wouldhave (WI050) proposed a model for a self-righting lifeboat in response to a competition to reward any inventor who could provide a craft for the purpose of saving lives from a shipwreck. 
The monument to Wouldhave and Greathead was used on
commemorative certificates from South Shields
Although his model did not win the competition, William’s concept led to the building of the first lifeboat by Henry Greathead. There was correspondence in local and national newspapers fifty years later, but it wasn’t until  1887 that William Wouldhave was commemorated by the Wouldhave Memorial, at Pier Head, South Shields for his part in the invention of the self-righting lifeboat.  It seems likely that some parents had heard the name Wouldhave from the newspapers and may have had it in mind when they chose a middle name for their child – especially if there was someone in their family with that surname.

The Etherington Family

The Etherington family, originating in the Barnard Castle area, used the middle name Wouldhave for 3 generations and the link to the surname comes from the early 19th century. 

Wouldhave origins
Henry Hutchinson was a whitesmith in Barnard Castle.  A Whitesmith was someone who worked in tin or other light metals.  They worked mostly on cold metals (in comparison to a Blacksmith who worked on hot metals). Henry Hutchinson married two Wouldhave sisters.  In 1803 he married Mary Wouldhave (MA096) born 1778.  Mary died in 1807 aged 29 years, a month after the birth of her daughter Frances.  In 1814 Henry married Mary’s younger sister, Hannah (HA091) born 1786.  Hannah died later in 1814, aged 28 years, two months after the birth of her daughter Mary.
Mary and Hannah were daughters of Michael Wouldhave (MI091) and Hannah formerly Crampton (HA094).  Michael was registered as a Freeman of Newcastle through patrimony, his father having been a Barber Surgeon.  Michael was a woollen stuff maker and dyer (listed in a directory in 1793 of Barnard Castle).
Mary Hutchinson (born 1814), daughter of Henry and Hannah, married Thomas Etherington in Gainford in 1833.  They were living in Gainford in the 1841 census. Thomas was a carpet weaver.  Although the woollen industry was prominent throughout the 18th century in Barnard Castle and the surrounding area, a decline in the demand for woollen cloth early in the 19th century resulted in high unemployment.  In order to make use of the plentiful supplies of wool in the area, manufacturers introduced carpet weaving.  Factories were built along the riverside and by 1834 the town had seven carpet manufacturing businesses.
1st generation
Mary and Thomas had several children including Thomas Wouldhave Etherington (1) born in 1857.  Thomas was also a carpet weaver and he married Mary Jane Robinson at Startforth in 1879.  Thomas died aged 40 years of heart failure and pneumonia.  His family lived in The Bank, in Barnard Castle.  His son, Thomas Wouldhave Etherington (2)was born in 1882. 
2nd generation
Thomas Wouldhave Etherington (2) married Mary Lizzie McKitton in 1907.  His brother John married Annie Mole in 1909.  The both had sons with Wouldhave as a middle name.
3rd generation
Robert Wouldhave Etherington was the son of Thomas (2) and Mary Lizzie. He was born in 1908 and died in 1932.
Thomas Wouldhave Etherington (3) was the son of John and Annie.  He was born in 1909, married Mary I Rutherford in 1932 and died in 2000.

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Freemen of Newcastle Part 1 Ropemakers

Freedom of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne could be claimed in one of two ways. 
Sons of Freemen inherited the Freedom from their fathers i.e. by patrimony. But if the father died before his son’s admission (usually at age of 21years), then they were forfeit of their rights. No illegitimate sons could inherit the franchise.
Freedom was also obtained by serving seven years as an apprentice. Apprentices then gained the right to enter the appropriate trade guild, which in turn gave them the right to seek admission as a Freeman.
Until the Reform Bill of 1832, the Freemen were the only people with the right to vote for their representatives in Parliament.

Thomas Wouldhave (TH040) (1678-1751)
Thomas was a ropemaker and was sworn as a Freeman in 1705. He was listed in the register of Freemen in 1709. He was the son of Thomas Wouldhave of Benwell and his wife Elizabeth Anderson (married in 1672). According to the Ropemakers Book of Enrolments (Tyne and Wear Archives GU.RO/3) Thomas was

apprentice to Rich Hutchinson of Newcastel upon Tyne, Ropemaker for seven years by indenture dated 24th Dec 1692.

And then on

18th December 1693 Thomas Wouldhave late apprentice to Rich Hutchison, he being dead, has chose Wm Robson to serve the remainder of his term with.

Tyneside became world renowned for rope-making in the 1700s. The major feature of roperies was the covered rope path which determined the lengths of the rope that could be made. Near City Road, a 300 yard long rope walk was marked on a map of 1723. Before the process was mechanised, workers walked the length of the rope twisting together, spinning and attaching fibres. It was a laborious process. Long ropes were needed in shipping since splicing shorter ropes made them difficult to get through pulleys.

Thomas married Mary Ellison at St Andrews, Newcastle in 1703 and was sworn in as a Freeman in 1705. In 1704 Thomas and his wife were living in Sidgate and their daughter Elizabeth (EL050) was baptised in Newcastle St Andrews. (Elizabeth later dated aged 13 in 1717).  They lived in this area for many  years, Thomas often acted as a surety for baptism, especially for children of other ropemakers.

Thomas had three sons William (WI040) (1711- 1770s), Thomas (TH041) (1716-1778) and James (JA040) (1717-1788) who lived to maturity.  They were all made Freemen by patrimony in October 1740.

Oath signed by Thomas Wouldhave (TH040)

William (WI040) married Elizabeth Dalgleish in Morpeth in 1740.  It would appear that he became a mariner in about 1747 and later a yeoman (possibly having come into property). His son Richard was a mariner and moved to Hull. (Further information about his family is given in earlier blogs)
Thomas married Elizabeth Heart in 1747.  He moved to North Shields and his son William (WI050) became an inventor (further information is given in earlier blogs)
In the 1741 election of MPs Thomas and his three sons all voted for the same candidate.

Published voting information for 1741 Election in Newcastle

James is also recorded as voting in the elections 1777 and 1780. He was buried in St Nicholas in April 1788.

Mary died in 1732 and Thomas died in 1751; he was buried at All Saints, Newcastle in July.